There are increasing numbers of examples of the four P’s: Pests, Parasites, Piracy, and Plagues. All of these are special cases of new systems evolving that were enabled in their evolution by pre-existence of other very complex systems that they lived off of without contributing to their “hosts” survival. It as if the presence of very complex systems caused the evolution of entities like bacteria and viruses that could take over or exist on the complex systems. For example, weeds and invading species often become a very selfish system that utilizes much of the ecology without evolving its contribution to its “nest.”
Our latest examples are scams or attacks that reduce the stability and security of others. For example, the many invasive attacks on our personal, political and internet computer systems.
In one case, we used the isomorphic systems process (ISP) of “self-organization”