In this age of recognition and serious study of ever more complex systems (and we might add engineering of ever more complex systems) it is quite popular to cite that unpredictable results or chaos results from the complexity. It is often assumed that these untraceable mechanics arises from non-linear causalities. This is a recognition that the Founders of GST were quite correct in naming and discussing “equifinality” (on of my forgotten FOUR E’s). Equifinality itself was a recognition of the results of networks of causation long before Network Theory developed as a field and became accepted.
That there are many different, and equally effective “pathways” (read causations) through a complex network is clear. Just as you have many pathways to work or school or on your return from them. But instead of leaving it at “Oh, that’s just non-linear causality!” SPT goes further and suggests several different types of non-linear causality, as a beginning taxonomy, and even further suggests that their are typical consequences for each type of non-linear causality. Here is a power point (we have not yet developed or published a paper) on Types of Non-Linear Causality first delivered at a ISSS Conference in 2006: