This is the main backbone part of SPT. There are only two. These are the mechanisms by which science experiments have shown healthy systems work. So we like to simplify and say that they are HOW SYSTEMS WORK. At least how most systems examined in nature and humans by natural and social science experiments are factually shown to work.
WHY STUDY PROCESSES turns out to be a critical question.
Although the simplest title of this general systems theory and systems science is SPT, my colleagues have maintained that I should call it SP3T. The three P’s stand for “processes” as described here, but also “patterns” (because some of the isomorphies are not processes, but rather architectural or numerical regularities) and some are “pathologies” (because some of the regularities are names of dysfunctions in processes not sustaining processes).